Sunday, August 23, 2020
Question: Depict about the TCP/IP Networking for Technical Operations. Answer: 1: Repeater: this is mostly for taking care of the tasks at the degree of the physical layer. It can produce the signs totally with a similar system design. For this, it is principally that the sign is seen as degenerate or feeble thus they are totally seen as defiled alongside dealing with enhancement of the signs with the administration of the recovery of the first quality. (Hassan et al., 2003). Switch: This depends on the focuses which depends on the linkage to deal with the MAC address with the best possible associations with the framework. There have been signal transmission of the information with the best possible systems administration execution which depends on taking care of the tasks relying upon the full-duplex mode. The examples of the transmission depend on the switches which are employable and the transmission depends on taking care of the association of 200 to 300 Mbps. Switches: these are for the treatment of the sensible data tending to with the systems administration header for the parcels with the IP address. The switches can deal with the bigger system with the capacity to deal with similar conventions with the attention on the telecom stream and the directing programming arrangement. (Marchette, 2001). Switch is costly than the switch. It is chiefly because of the arrangement of the associations which are of the various gadgets for the LAN frameworks. The IP address can deal with the security of the gadget alongside taking care of the information sending to the specific goal. With this, there has been not a single firewall in sight in the switches or no transmission capacity. The switches are more mind boggling and costly than the repeaters. This is for the most part because of the repeaters are for the most part to deal with the transmission in the scope of a bigger separation. Where there is a patter arrangement of the transmission which is on a more drawn out separation. This is for the most part to deal with the transmission of the information with the crash of the information. (Tozer, 2004). 2: a. number of address with 256*128=32768 postfix length log 2128=7 For the 128 location,/25 cover. 255.255.255.128 is for bunch 1. 126.96.36.199/25 for subnet 1 188.8.131.52/25 for subnet 2 to 184.108.40.206/25 220.127.116.11/25..18.104.22.168/25 for subnet 3 thus on..subnet 100 For 200th subnet 22.214.171.124/25 till 126.96.36.199/25 The total location is 256*128=32768 used=200*128=25600 saved 7168 56 are to be doled out. next location 188.8.131.52 400 size with 16 location - cover is/28 veil or 255.255.255.240 address 512*16=8192 Addition Length 4log 216=4 subnet 1 as 184.108.40.206/28 Subnet 2 as 220.127.116.11/28 Subnet 16 as 18.104.22.168/28 Subnet 400[400/16=25] as 22.214.171.124/28 to 126.96.36.199/28 Unused 188.8.131.52 to 184.108.40.206 utilized 400*16=6400 location Saved 1792 112 can be alloted. Next location - 220.127.116.11 2000 family units,/30 veil or 255.255.255.252 address is 2048*4=8192 Addition length is 2log 24=2 and the prefix length is 32-2=30 subnet 1 as 18.104.22.168/30 Subnet 2 as 22.214.171.124/30 Subnet 16 as 126.96.36.199/64 Subnet 1984 as 188.8.131.52/30 31*64=1984 Subnet 2000 as 184.108.40.206/30 Next location 220.127.116.11 Utilized 2000*4=8000 held 192 These can be for 48 families. Staying 16384 3: R1 - N1 associate with A N2 associate with B N3 associate with C and E. R2 - N3 associate with E and C N4 associate with D N5 associate with E N6 associate with F. Subsequently, R1 is more intricate than R2. There are N1, N2, N3, N4, N5, and N6 organize. 4: The separation vector directing depends on taking care of the littler systems administration framework which will be founded on taking care of the scale up with the more elevated levels of the CPU and the use. There have been bounce counters for the assurance of the way which is fitting to the treatment of the source and the goal. (Martin et al., 1994). The working depends on the association with the various updates and the occasional issues, with the start to finish perceivability approach for the data to be conveyed to the diverse inclined regions. With the connection state steering, the innovation has had the option to take a shot at the tasks which can arrange the framework approach and the support. The examples are essentially to deal with the NLSP where there is a need to figure the best and the short way for the treatment of the bundle framework. (Gamma, 1995). There has been usage set for the techniques which are primarily to control and successfully handle the timespan which will have the option to multicast the framework just as the updates to different neighbors. (Slowing down, 1998). 5: ICMP depends on the treatment of the information where there is a need to take a shot at the doors with the buffering examples to deal with the headings. (Perkins et al., 1995). According to the IP address, there is definitely not an appropriate unwavering quality on the controlled input of the framework. This depends on taking care of the arrangement alongside appropriately arranging and controlling the various systems for the unwavering quality. This is coordinated to deal with the examples where the ICMP is chiefly for the non-sending of the messages. (Vasilakos et al., 2016). The limit with respect to the systems administration examples will be through the sending of the datagrams which will have the option to deal with the sending of the traffic framework according to the premise of the switch. Through this, it is anything but difficult to deal with and chip away at the various examples which incorporates the TTL messages alongside the lapse subtleties. (Shang et al., 2016). References Hassan, M., Jain, R. (2003).High execution TCP/IP networking(Vol. 29). Prentice Hall. Marchette, D. J. (2001). TCP/IP Networking. InComputer Intrusion Detection and Network Monitoring(pp. 3-42). Springer New York. Tozer, E. P. J. (2004). TCP/IP Networking.Broadcast Engineer's Reference Book, 61. Martin, J., Leben, J. (1994).TCP/IP organizing: design, organization, and programming. Prentice-Hall, Inc.. Gamma, E. (1995).Design examples: components of reusable item arranged programming. Pearson Education India. Stallings, W. (1998). Rapid networks.TCP/IP and ATM Design Principles, Upper SaddleRiver, NJ, Prenti c eHall, In c. Perkins, C. E., Jagannadh, T. (1995, July). DHCP for portable systems administration with TCP/IP. InComputers and Communications, 1995. Procedures., IEEE Symposium on(pp. 255-261). IEEE. Vasilakos, A. V., Zhang, Y., Spyropoulos, T. (Eds.). (2016).Delay open minded systems: Protocols and applications. CRC press. Shang, W., Yu, Y., Droms, R., Zhang, L. (2016).Challenges in IoT Networking by means of TCP/IP Architecture. NDN Project, Tech. Rep. NDN-0038.
Posted by Christel Robey at 1:10 AM
Friday, August 21, 2020
I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold back to arrive, the Cayman Islands this was. On the tiring plane excursion there, each spirit was sleeping separated from mine, longing for what the following fourteen days would have been similar to for me. The completely clear cobalt blue oceans and the sandy sun-kissed shore. We will compose a custom article test on I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold back to arrive or on the other hand any comparable subject just for you Request Now Unadulterated heaven and a way to unwinding! Before I knew it we had contacted down in Little Cayman the view really dazzling. Everything I could see was the suns copying sweltering beams twinkling off the outside of the quiet Caribbean Sea. Before my feet had the opportunity to contact the ground I was in the ocean with my snorkel respecting the beautiful submerged life. Totally untainted, favored with regular fortunes and with its remarkable submerged perceivability it totally blew my mind. With the solid reef and energizing marine life, nature sweethearts would discover indigenous untamed life thus did I? I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t oppose any longer, I took my final gasp and judiciously swam into another world under the ocean. I felt so incredible, innocuously annihilating all the various species from my way as I further slid towards the splendidly shaded coral. I felt an abnormal sensations leave behind my body as the plants and coral delicately brushed against me. It was getting cold now so my heart accelerated drastically spending my little hold oxygen I had in me, so I needed to get up for some more soon. Similarly as I pulled away I felt my lower leg get grasped together. I froze, what was it I thought? Coral! As I spun my head round it was in certainty an enormous octopus. I yanked my foot however he determinedly hung on. I kicked by and by, yet without any result. I was rapidly coming up short on air and the last saves I had went straight out my mouth and rose to the surface. I was thinking except if he gives up IÃ¢â¬â¢m going to kick the bucket. Nobody will know where I am or what befell me. This astounding occasion reaching an appalling conclusion. What will my family do? I gradually backed off and my eyes shut. I was slipping all through compactness while my lungs topped off with seawater. I was practically dead! At that point without no notification he let go my doused body gradually skimmed to the surface and sprung up like a Boyd. Gagging and spluttering, the water before long cleared my lungs, supplanted with all around required air. I despite everything had no vitality and no clue where I was; I absolutely didnÃ¢â¬â¢t have the vitality to swim to the shore. I was battling for my life. I fell oblivious once more. A few hours after the fact I was got up on the shore, my mum attempting to wake me up. How I returned to the shore, I will never know however express gratitude toward God IÃ¢â¬â¢m still alive! Step by step instructions to refer to I couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t hold on to arrive, Papers
Posted by Christel Robey at 10:52 PM
Friday, July 10, 2020
How Can a Praxis Essay Sample Help Students?Praxis essay samples are ideal for any student who is looking to improve their grades and have a healthy work ethic. Students often have difficult subjects to learn, but with a little effort, this is easier to learn than ever before.With so many busy students today, it is more important than ever that students have an easy way to learn. With Praxis essay samples, students can learn to write good papers easily without having to study.To help students get started, companies would pay them money to read the sample drafts they send them. Of course, students would need to think about what topics to write about. Students have to come up with topics that students would find interesting, but that would be easy to understand.If you are ready to take your writing to the next level, choose a Praxis essay sample that will show you how to make use of the examples in the sample drafts. These exercises help to provide examples and techniques that you can use to give your students the information they need to write well.When writing standard essays, students must pay close attention to their spelling and grammar, but when they learn how to use examples, they will do better. Good example writers can help students with their essays much better than reading their own work.They are also good sources of learning new techniques for writing papers and essays that will improve your grades. If you are looking for a product that will teach students how to write papers, then you should consider using a Praxis product.Online teaching materials are available on the Internet that cover everything from sample drafts to essay formulas. If you would like to know how to use online teaching material, then you should try using Praxis for Education. This product is easy to find online, but is also well worth the price you pay for it.
Posted by Christel Robey at 1:45 AM
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
MOOC and document orientated NoSQL database Abstract: MOOC (Massive Open Online Course) is getting popularity in not only in Universities worldwide but also in the people who want to enrich their skill sets. As the demand grows, different MOOC websites are taking appropriate action to provide more dynamic environment. They are using NoSQL to maintain the data. Most of the MOOC websites using Document type NoSQL databases to manage videos, forums and assignments. But when it comes to decide which NoSQL database should be implemented there are many choices like MongoDB, CouchDB, ClusterPoint etc. and consequently a question arises why majority of MOOC websites are using MongoDB instead of CouchDB which is also a NoSQL document oriented database? In the following paper it will be more clear which database MongoDB or CouchDB in the present time is more suitable to use for a MOOC website. Introduction: Distance learning had three generations 1. Correspondence Study 2. Multimedia 3. Computer mediate After the industrial revolution, correspondence study started in the Europe and United States because more skilled work force was required and also reliability and speed of postal service was improved greatly. In the 20th century multimedia is introduced and became new tool of education for teachers and learners. Class became more adaptable to reach different kind of audience result of that even people of remote areas started to get grasp on the subject. But Multimedia still lack
Posted by Christel Robey at 11:40 PM
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
The use of silence varies from one culture to another. Western traditional cultures perception of and use of silence are different from eastern cultures of the world. Countries which adapted much of the Greek culture and learned from Aristotle, Socrates, and Plato high value socializing and believe talking as an important activity. Some countires that view the perception of silence in this way are the United States, Germany, and France. However, Eastern cultures such as Japan and India find silence very appealing. Silence is not only developed in Asian cultures, but it is also found in many Scandinavian cultures and American Indian cultures. The Japanese culture observed that silence can serve a variety of purposes. It can be seen as aÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦186). Men have typically communicated to exert control, preserve independence, and enhance status. They typically minimize feelings. Doing this enables men to use problem solving, data collection, and solution suggestions . They emphasize content rather than feelings. Wood states that men also, Ã¢â¬Å"expresses superiority and maintains controlÃ¢â¬ (p. 188). Men redirect conversations fro their own benefit and interrupt as a controlling or challenging device. This allow the man to drive the conversation, asserting the control. Forceful and direct language is common among men. Wood also goes on to state that, Ã¢â¬Å"men tend to speak in abstact terms that are general and removed from personal experiencesÃ¢â¬ (p. 188). This allows the men to keep their emotions out of the conversation. Lastly, the conversation of men is not very responsive. Sympathy, understanding, and self disclosure are rarely expressed because these responses are condescending and make one vulnerable. Understanding these communications allows one to understand more about one another. From the early beginnings, it was prevalent that girls, typically more passive with a more rational thought process normally grows into one who communicates with feelings and understanding. Boys growing up show aggressiveness that eventually evolved into a lack of expressionShow MoreRelatedWe Cry On The Inside : Image Theater And Rwanda s Culture Of Silence1688 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages It is often discussed that Rwandans have a Ã¢â¬Å"culture of silenceÃ¢â¬ or an aptitude to withhold their personal struggles or opinions. There are phrases in Kinyarwanda that demonstrate this cultural trait such as Ã¢â¬Å"keep it all insideÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"we cry on the insideÃ¢â¬ (Blair Fletcher 4). In Blair and FletcherÃ¢â¬â¢s article We Cry on the Inside: Image Theater and RwandaÃ¢â¬â¢s Culture of Silence, a member of one of the theater activities stated Ã¢â¬Å"ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not easy to explain your problems to another. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s considered unacceptableRead MoreEast African Culture Reflects on Their Drama Using Aminata, Echoes of Silence and I Will Marry When I Want as Case Study12168 Words Ã |Ã 49 Pages FACULTY OF ARTS DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH AND LITERARY STUDIES AN ASSIGNMENT ON: ELS 226 (MODERN AFRICAN DRAMA) SUBMITTED BY : GROUP 4 QUESTION: THE CULTURE OF THE PEOPLE DETERMINES ITS DRAMA. DISCUSS THE EAST AFRICAN EXPERIENCE AS EXEMPLIFY IN FRANCES LIMBULGAÃ¢â¬â¢S AMMATA, NGUGI WA THIONGOÃ¢â¬â¢ S I WILL MARRY WHEN I WANT AND JOHN RUGANDAÃ¢â¬â¢S ECHOES OF SILENCE. LECTURER-IN-CHARGE: DR OLANIYAN MRS LIST OF GROUP MEMBERS. OGUNFEIBO AYOKUNLE O 1002630 IBITOYE EBUNOLUWA ABIGAEL 1000154 ADEBIYIRead MoreCommunication And Silence In Maxine Hong Kingstons The Woman Warrior1609 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesis it that you never open your lips at a committee meeting? You are a droneÃ¢â¬ (Cain 189). Though the world today certainly knows of Gandhi, his peers once saw him as a drone as a result of his silence. Cultures linked with silence can conflict with other, more vocal cultures: a prominent example is the silence of Asia in contrast with the openness of America. Maxine Hong Kingston delves into this clash in her 1976 memoir The Woman Warrior, throughout which a young, insecure girl develops a voice ofRead MorePersonal Values Of Collectivist Culture1594 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesCollectivist The sibling culture I experience weighs more on the collectivist culture. This is because my relationship with my siblings is primarily grouped based. We value group cooperation and harmony rather than a competitive spirit or individual desire. Evidence of this is depicted as we work together to complete the task of finishing our chores. We constantly split chores and alternate. We also work together to help each other out, both academically and emotionally. As a middle child, I haveRead MoreEssay about Asian American Identity1643 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSilence as Beauty, Silence as Self: The Asian American Identity The label Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ encompasses many different cultures and races. However, American society is often guilty of assuming there is only one true, certainly white, Ã¢â¬Å"AmericanÃ¢â¬ face, voice, and behavior. Associate Professor of Sociology, Minako Maykovich, states that Ã¢â¬Å"the criteria for physical characteristics are generally determined by the dominant group in society,Ã¢â¬ thus Ã¢â¬Å"racial difference is the greatest obstacle to the processRead MoreThe Important Aspects Of Effective Nursing923 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesand sound, but also non-verbal. Non-verbal behaviors such as touch, facial expressions, eye contact and movement, posture and silence make up more than half of the art of communication (Giger, 2013). The population in the United States is comprised of various cultures with different views of the meaning of non-verbal communication. Understanding the views of various cultures can create a positive and healing environment for the patient, as well as increase patient and employee satisfaction (Starr Read MoreLiterary Analysis : Madison Eller 1474 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesform a great rift between cultures, but if the two cultures understood each other, perhaps they would not be so prejudiced. The Chosen provides an inside look into the culture of the Jewish people in America. The persecution of the Jews brought millions of Jewish people to Ameri ca where they could live and worship God freely. The ChosenÃ¢â¬â¢s themes of reconciling Jewish tradition with the American culture, using eyesight and hearing to overcome bias, and recognizing silence as a path to the soul showRead MoreAdvance Review On Criminal Justice Essay1242 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesorganizational culture truly exist in law enforcement in the United States? The answer is yes, it does exist however, when you have individual that live by the Ã¢â¬Å"Code of SilenceÃ¢â¬ , or working under the assumption that they are above the law and lack of proper training these types of headlines will continue. How is the community to respect law enforcement when many donÃ¢â¬â¢t seem to respect their own organizational culture and still work under the code of silence? With a strong organizational culture in placeRead MoreSolar Storm by Linda Hogan: The Clash of Perception1109 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThere is the western culture that sees the earth as nothing more than a never ending resource without realizing that by their activities, they are at risk of creating their own demise. Then there is the indigenous culture that personifies the land. They see the earth as an entity that they have made a bond with; a bond that now lay broken. The book also utilizes silence not only as a symbol for something much bigger but also as a way to craft identity through the views of culture on a forged path ofRead MoreSilence : Silence And Silence1135 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesNaomi hears no response and only silence accompanies her relentlessly. So she growing up in solitude and silence, Naomi loses the abi lity to communicate with others and the silence became part of her life. Ã¢â¬Å"The language of her grief is silence. She has learned it well, its idioms, its nuances, over the years, silence within her small body has grown large and powerfulÃ¢â¬ (Kogawa 17). The silence grew within her, bringing difficulty to verbalize her suffering. Silence has become her way of expression
Posted by Christel Robey at 10:44 PM
Question: Discuss Correlation between Personal Interactions, Performance and Innovation? Answer: Introduction The strategic aspects, features as well as values are becoming increasingly significant than cost as well as effectiveness. Regarding this aspect, Pentland did the deployment of badges that will be tracking the ways by which individuals are talking with each other, who will be talking with whom, ways by which individuals will be moving around the office and where they will be spending the time. Pentland did the identification of three major components regarding successful communication that are exploration to interact with individuals in many different social groups, engagement to interact with individuals within a social group as well as energy to interact with increasing number of individuals. Workspaces that move people Correlation between personal interactions, performance and innovation Faith is considered having the tight correlation within personal interactions, performance as well as innovation. The designing of the new campus of Google has been done for maximizing chance encounters. In recent times, Samsung did the unveiling of plans regarding new U.S. headquarters. Even though faith is considered being nice, but it needs to be considered whether it will be effective or not (Barney 2015). Samsungs social space could be regarded being another in a long line of fads as well as broken promises relating to the designing of the workspace. To understand whether the approaches are productive it is required to know the key metric that the organizations are using for measuring space, which is focusing on the effectiveness. Limited number of companies are measuring whether the design of a space is helping or hurting the ability to perform (Chang 2016). They are having the means, similar sensors, activity trackers, smartphones as well as social networks, which they are imp osing on customers in an eager manner for revealing their habits as well as behavioural aspects that will be turning inward, regarding staffs in their environments for work. Collection of performance data For collecting the data to perform, there is the requirement to use different tools, from simple network analytics to sociometric badges that will be capturing the aspect of interacting, communicating as well as locating the information. Post the deployment of thousands of badges in offices that ranges from pharmaceuticals, finance, as well as software organizations in respect of hospitals, there will be the beginning of unlocking the secrets regarding effective office design regarding density, individual proximity as well as social nature (Ebert 2014). Recognizing the office space as not just an amortized asset but a strategic developmental tool The consulting as well as designing company Strategy Plus will be estimating that office use will be peaking at 42% on any given day. The optimum way for managing cost per square foot is removing square foot that is wasted. Designing offices for reflecting ways by which 21st century digital work is actually occurring The buildings that we are going daily, have not changed in comparison to the tools that we are using for completing the work. To merge the patterns of digital communication with physical space will be increasing the possibility to interact that will be leading towards innovation as well as effectiveness (Wells 2013). Re-engineering offices for weaving a building, or different spaces related to work into the urban fabric The future office will be mostly including highly networked, shared as well as multipurpose spaces that will redefining boundaries within organizations as well as improving the performing ability of every individual (Gamble 2015). Office space as tools of communication In this context, the strategic aspects, features as well as values are becoming increasingly significant than cost as well as effectiveness. Regarding this aspect, Pentland did the deployment of badges that will be tracking the ways by which individuals are talking with each other, who will be talking with whom, ways by which individuals will be moving around the office and where they will be spending the time. Pentland did the identification of three major components regarding successful communication that are exploration to interact with individuals in many different social groups, engagement to interact with individuals within a social group as well as energy to interact with increasing number of individuals (Meyer 2015). Growth of coworking Growth related to coworking as well as coworkers surveys are demonstrating that when a choice is given, individuals will be choosing workspaces that are supporting their digital style while providing them with the accessibility regarding new knowledge, exposing them to various types of skills as well as doing the acceleration of their learning. The success related with coworking has assisted certain teams in graduating out of their spaces of coworking (Gandini 2015). Even though the model is providing in a clear manner the exploration that is required by the independent workers as well as very small groups, when teams will be reaching a critical size, generally around ten members, they require increasing their association with each other. This will be leading towards the aspect of scaling the space for coworking. The first floor of the new campus for Amazon, in Seattle is majorly a coworking space (Merkel 2015). Ace Hotel is marketing the lobby of its New York flagship as a workspace in an active manner. ATT did the creation of Foundry, a network of research centres where engineers are working side by side with start-ups that are handpicked, corporate partners as well as 3rd party developers for bringing new products to the market very fast. Bankers like ING Direct also did the building of seven cafes that is presently known as Capital One 360 Cafes, in which the organizations workers would be setting up shops as well as interacting with customers that could be using the workspace as well. Moreover, Airbnb has converted one of its conference rooms as its new headquarters (Rosemann 2015). Coworking is getting successful since it is integrating in a successful manner better workspace design that will be enhancing the aspect of exploring the digital work habits regarding individuals as well as small teams. In certain cases, there is a possibility for scaling the benefits associated with coworking that includes high rates of collision as well as accelerated learning for building an overall neighbourhood. For instance, The Downtown Project, in Las Vegas is still regarded to be a controlled experiment. It will not be capturing the complexity to get organizations as well as civic bodies for cooperating in a routine as well as continual manner while making adaptations for technological changes that are considered being inevitable (Kubtov 2014). Also, Tony Hsieh, Zappos CEO did the investment $350 million in the place around the new headquarters of the organization. Hsiehs objective is associated with growing the local start-up as well as entrepreneurial community in a manner that will be attracting the areas talent in an organic manner that will be beneficial regarding the staffs at Zappos as well as the neighbourhood. Jennifer Magnolfi did the participation in developing as well as analysing the space for coworking within the headquarters at Zappos and led a local experiment regarding coworking whose launching took place in early 2012 and eventual growth occurred for including almost 200 stakeholders (Wild 2014). Conclusion It is to be concluded that growth related to coworking as well as coworkers surveys are demonstrating that when a choice is given, individuals will be choosing workspaces that are supporting their digital style while providing them with the accessibility regarding new knowledge, exposing them to various types of skills as well as doing the acceleration of their learning. The success related with coworking has assisted certain teams in graduating out of their spaces of coworking. Even though the model is providing in a clear manner the exploration that is required by the independent workers as well as very small groups, when teams will be reaching a critical size, generally around ten members, they require increasing their association with each other. This will be leading towards the aspect of scaling the space for coworking. Reference Barney, J.B. and Hesterly, W., 2015.Strategic management and competitive advantage concepts and cases. Pearson. Chang, J.F., 2016.Business process management systems: strategy and implementation. CRC Press. Ebert, R.J., Griffin, R.W., Starke, F.A. and Dracopoulos, G., 2014.Business essentials. Pearson Education Canada. Gamble, J., Peteraf, M.A. and Thompson, A.A., 2015.Essentials of strategic management FOURTH EDITION. McGraw-Hill. Gandini, A., 2015. The rise of coworking spaces: A literature review.ephemera,15(1), p.193. Kubtov, J., 2014, September. The Cause and Impact of the Development of Coworking in the Current Knowledge Economy. InEuropean Conference on Knowledge Management(Vol. 2, p. 571). Academic Conferences International Limited. Merkel, J., 2015. Coworking in the city.ephemera,15(1), p.121. Meyer, A. and Fourie, I., 2015. Collaborative information seeking environments benefiting from holistic ergonomics.Library Hi Tech,33(3), pp.439-459. Rosemann, M. and vom Brocke, J., 2015. The six core elements of business process management. InHandbook on business process management 1(pp. 105-122). Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Wells, G. ed., 2013.Sustainable business: Theory and practice of business under sustainability principles. Edward Elgar Publishing. Wild, J., Wild, K.L. and Han, J.C., 2014.International business. Pearson Education Limited.
Posted by Christel Robey at 7:07 AM
Wednesday, April 22, 2020
What the U.S. can learn from Japan Japan and the Four Little Dragons in order to achieve their industrialization goals have a diverse set of policies ranging from limited entitlement programs to a education and government bureaucracy that stresses achievement and meritocracy. But one of the most significant innovations of Japan and the Four Little Dragons is there industrial policy which targets improving specific sectors of the economy by focusing R&D, subsidies, and tax incentives to specific industries that the government wants to promote. The United States could adopt some of these industrial policies to help foster emerging high tech businesses and help existing U.S. business remain competitive with East Asia. In Japan the government both during the Meiji period and the post World War II period followed a policy of active, sector selective industrial targeting. Japan used basically the same model during both historical periods. The Japanese government would focus its tax incentive programs, subsidies, and R&D on what it saw as emerging industries. During the Meiji period Japan focused it's attention on emulating western technology such as trains, steel production, and textiles. The Meiji leaders took taxes levied on agriculture to fund the development of these new industries. Following World War II Japanese industries used this same strategic industrial policy to develop the high-tech, steel, and car industries that Japan is known for today. Some American industries are currently heavily supported by the government through subsidies and tax breaks to farmers, steel producers, and other industries that have been hurt by foreign competition because they are predominantly low-tech industries. But this economic policy of the U.S. is almost a complete reversal of the economic policies of Japan and the Four Little Tigers; instead of fostering new businesses and high tech industry it supports out of date and low tech firms who have political clout. The existing economic policy of the United States fails to help high tech businesses develop a competitive advantage on the world market instead it stagnates innovation by providing incentives primarily to existing business. The structure of U.S. industrial policy like the structure of an advance welfare state has emphasized rewarding powerful lobbying groups and has not targeted emerging sectors of the economy. The current U.S. industrial policy is a distribution strategy and not a development strategy. Instead of this ad-hoc industrial policy the United States should follow Japan's model of strategic targeting of emerging technology. The U.S. instead of pouring its money into subsidies and tax breaks for failing low-tech industries should provide loans, subsidies and R&D money for firms that are producing high technology products. Unfortunately, there are several impediments to copying Japan's model: first, tremendous political pressure from interest groups forces politicians to give corporate welfare to failing established firms and not emerging firms. Second, it is difficult for a government to select which sectors of the economy it will target. But despite these obstacles the U.S. is now confronted with trading powers who have coordinated government programs to foster the development of new technology; in comparison the U.S. governments reliance on individual initiative and a lack of government support for new industries has allowed Japan and the Four Little Dragon's to catch up to the U.S. in the area of high technology. In the coming years the U.S. could not just lose its advantage but fall behind if it fails to redirect government subsidies from failing firms to emerging sectors of the economy copying Japan's industrial development model.
Posted by Christel Robey at 9:12 PM